Neighbourhood Sault-au-Récollet

History

1500 1535

1500 - 1535

Before the arrival of the Europeans, this was a portage site for the Amerindians. It was a wooded area next to the Rivière des Prairies rapids, named “Skowanoti,” or “River behind the island” by the Amerindians.

1536 1721

1536-1721

The first settlements

Jacques Cartier travelled upriver to the Island of Montreal in 1535, but it was with Samuel Champlain and the Recollet missionaries who travelled with him that the sector's occupation symbolically began with the first mass celebrated in New France. Some say that, in 1610, a Saint Malo navigator named Des Prairies who was travelling with Champlain sailed up the Rivière des Prairies thinking it was the Saint Lawrence. When he discovered his error, he gave his name to the newly discovered river.

When the Sulpicians were named Lords and owners of the entire island of Montreal, they began to grant lands on the coast of New Lorette, later part of Sault-au-Récollet. In 1696, they reclaimed these lands to build a Huron mission surrounded by a palisade. The Fort Lorette, mission, which also served to protect the colonists, was in use until 1721.

Image : HM_ARC_002510

Watercolour of Sault-au-Récollet

© Ville de Montréal, Gestion de documents et archives (Boîte 163-06-04-1, cdn Archives publiques), © Héritage Montréal


1536-1721

The first settlements

Jacques Cartier travelled upriver to the Island of Montreal in 1535, but it was with Samuel Champlain and the Recollet missionaries who travelled with him that the sector's occupation symbolically began with the first mass celebrated in New France. Some say that, in 1610, a Saint Malo navigator named Des Prairies who was travelling with Champlain sailed up the Rivière des Prairies thinking it was the Saint Lawrence. When he discovered his error, he gave his name to the newly discovered river.

When the Sulpicians were named Lords and owners of the entire island of Montreal, they began to grant lands on the coast of New Lorette, later part of Sault-au-Récollet. In 1696, they reclaimed these lands to build a Huron mission surrounded by a palisade. The Fort Lorette, mission, which also served to protect the colonists, was in use until 1721.

Image : HM_ARC_003731

Map of the Nouvelle Lorette Fort

© Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec, © Héritage Montréal


Image : HM_ARC_002211

Fort Lorette ammunition store

© Ville de Montréal. Gestion de documents et archives (164-01-01-2), © Héritage Montréal


1722 1801

1722-1801

Period of agricultural colonization

After the mission was moved to the seignory of Lake of Two Mountains, the land was given to the colonists, while Fort Lorette was placed under the jurisdiction of the Fabrique de la paroisse de la Visitation de la Bienheureuse Vierge Marie du Sault-au-Récollet, founded in 1736.

In 1726, a dam was built to link the river bank to the Île de la Visitation - one of the most impressive feats of civil engineering of the French regime. In 1749, the De la Visitation Church was built to replace the small chapel at Fort Lorette. With its farm buildings, woods, fields of wheat and oats, meadows and pastures, rocky soil, apple and pear orchards, and vineyards, agriculture was starting to transform the land.

Flour and lumber mills were built on the Sulpicians' land, and other mills were constructed for grinding grain and carding wool. Considered to be one of Montreal's first proto-industrial sites, it was in operation until 1960.

Image : HM_ARC_002523

Old plan of the Sault-au-Récollet village
Circa 1768
© Ville de Montréal, Gestion de documents et archives (Dossier 163-01-01-1, Archives SHSAR), © Héritage Montréal


1722-1801

Period of agricultural colonization

After the mission was moved to the seignory of Lake of Two Mountains, the land was given to the colonists, while Fort Lorette was placed under the jurisdiction of the Fabrique de la paroisse de la Visitation de la Bienheureuse Vierge Marie du Sault-au-Récollet, founded in 1736.

In 1726, a dam was built to link the river bank to the Île de la Visitation - one of the most impressive feats of civil engineering of the French regime. In 1749, the De la Visitation Church was built to replace the small chapel at Fort Lorette. With its farm buildings, woods, fields of wheat and oats, meadows and pastures, rocky soil, apple and pear orchards, and vineyards, agriculture was starting to transform the land.

Flour and lumber mills were built on the Sulpicians' land, and other mills were constructed for grinding grain and carding wool. Considered to be one of Montreal's first proto-industrial sites, it was in operation until 1960.

Image : HM_ARC_002504

Cover page of the leaflet celebrating 200 years of the De La Visitation parish

© Ville de Montréal, Gestion de documents et archives (Dossier rue 17-09-05-02 R3089(1829 à 1847), © Héritage Montréal


Image : HM_ARC_002518

Église La Visitation and country scene

22.8 cm
17.7 cm
© Ville de Montréal, Gestion de documents et archives (Dossier 163-01-01-1, Archives SHSAR), © Héritage Montréal


Image : HM_ARC_002219

Aerial view of the windmills at Sault-au-Récollet
Around 1925
© Ville de Montréal. Gestion de documents et archives (163-06-04-1), © Héritage Montréal


1802 1895

1802-1895

Development of a rural village

While still an isolated agricultural village on the banks of Rivière des Prairies, the Sault expanded rapidly in the early nineteenth century. Social life became more organized, the first village schools were built in 1831, and the first bridge was built by Paschal Persillier (Lachapelle père). With its mills and other facilities, Sault-au-Récollet provided services for the surrounding countryside.

The Sault parish encompassed a vast territory including the current Villeray, Saint-Léonard, and Ahuntsic. In the second half of the century, parts of these areas gradually broke away.

In 1850-1852, the new façade for the De la Visitation Church was built according to the plans of John Ostell. The Dames du Sacré-Coeur community arrived in Sault-au-Récollet and, at the request of the bishop, Mgr Ignace Bourget, they had a convent built for the education of young girls: Sophie Barat College. By the end of the century, wooden sidewalks ran along the streets in front of homes and the roadways were built of crushed stone.

Image : HM_ARC_003382

Aerial view Sault-au-Récollet

© Ville de Montréal. Gestion de documents et archives (SHM19), © Héritage Montréal


1802-1895

Development of a rural village

While still an isolated agricultural village on the banks of Rivière des Prairies, the Sault expanded rapidly in the early nineteenth century. Social life became more organized, the first village schools were built in 1831, and the first bridge was built by Paschal Persillier (Lachapelle père). With its mills and other facilities, Sault-au-Récollet provided services for the surrounding countryside.

The Sault parish encompassed a vast territory including the current Villeray, Saint-Léonard, and Ahuntsic. In the second half of the century, parts of these areas gradually broke away.

In 1850-1852, the new façade for the De la Visitation Church was built according to the plans of John Ostell. The Dames du Sacré-Coeur community arrived in Sault-au-Récollet and, at the request of the bishop, Mgr Ignace Bourget, they had a convent built for the education of young girls: Sophie Barat College. By the end of the century, wooden sidewalks ran along the streets in front of homes and the roadways were built of crushed stone.

Image : HM_ARC_005234

Atlas of the City and Island of Montreal Canada, Village Sault-au-Récollet, Village Saint-Ann, Village Saint-Laurent
1879
45 cm
36 cm
© Dinu Bumbaru / © Héritage Montréal


Image : HM_ARC_005246

Atlas of the City and Island of Montreal, Parish Sault-au-Récollet
1879
45 cm
36 cm
© Dinu Bumbaru, © Héritage Montréal


Image : HM_ARC_002132

Windmill (before restoration)

10.2 cm
15 cm
© Ville de Montréal, SDCQMVDE, Direction des grands parcs et de la nature en ville, © Héritage Montréal


Image : HM_ARC_002128

Remains of Des Moulins watermill

10.2 cm
15 cm
© Ville de Montréal, SDCQMVDE, Direction des grands parcs et de la nature en ville, © Héritage Montréal


Image : HM_ARC_002129

Ruins of Des Moulins watermill

10.2 cm
15 cm
© Ville de Montréal, SDCQMVDE, Direction des grands parcs et de la nature en ville, © Héritage Montréal


Image : HM_ARC_002505

Église La Visitation (with the presbytery and sacristan's house), Sault-au-Récollet
1975
© Ville de Montréal, Gestion de documents et archives (Dossier rue 17-09-05-02 R3089(1829 à 1847), © Héritage Montréal


Image : HM_ARC_002227

Rivière des Prairies, near Collège Sophie-Barat

8.7 cm
12.3 cm
© Commission Scolaire de Montréal, © Héritage Montréal


Image : HM_ARC_002232

Fence along Collège Sophie-Barat (Gouin Boulevard)

8.7 cm
12.3 cm
© Commission Scolaire de Montréal, © Héritage Montréal


Image : HM_ARC_002216

Lateral view of École Sophie-Barat

© Ville de Montréal. Gestion de documents et archives(R3089.2), © Héritage Montréal


Image : HM_ARC_002501

Drawing of the Sacré-Coeur convent

© Ville de Montréal, Gestion de documents et archives (Dossier rue 17-09-05-02 R3089(1000 à 1800), © Héritage Montréal


1896 1970

1896-1970

Integration with the City of Montreal, expansion, and urbanization

In 1895, the inauguration of the Sault-au-Récollet tramway line by the Montreal Park & Island Railway Company linked Rivière des Prairies with downtown Montreal and brought significant changes to the area. City dwellers wishing to relax in a rural setting were drawn to the easily accessible locale and wealthy urbanites built opulent homes and summer cottages.

At the same time, part of the Sault became urbanized in the early twentieth century when a dam and a generating station put an end to swimming in Rivière des Prairies. Electricity was brought to the neighbourhood, which was annexed to the City of Montreal in 1916. New roads were built, increasing traffic, and the last traces of Fort Lorette disappeared.

After the Second World War, the neighbourhood became more residential, and the transportation network was enhanced and expanded with the opening of Henri-Bourassa Boulevard, the construction of the Papineau-Leblanc Bridge, and the opening of the Henri-Bourassa metro station. Only Gouin Boulevard and the north end of the district retained their holiday ambiance.

Image : HM_ARC_003505

Jesuit tram stop on the Sault-au-Récollet line
1913
25 cm
20 cm
© Exporail (# MTC520), © Héritage Montréal


1896-1970

Integration with the City of Montreal, expansion, and urbanization

In 1895, the inauguration of the Sault-au-Récollet tramway line by the Montreal Park & Island Railway Company linked Rivière des Prairies with downtown Montreal and brought significant changes to the area. City dwellers wishing to relax in a rural setting were drawn to the easily accessible locale and wealthy urbanites built opulent homes and summer cottages.

At the same time, part of the Sault became urbanized in the early twentieth century when a dam and a generating station put an end to swimming in Rivière des Prairies. Electricity was brought to the neighbourhood, which was annexed to the City of Montreal in 1916. New roads were built, increasing traffic, and the last traces of Fort Lorette disappeared.

After the Second World War, the neighbourhood became more residential, and the transportation network was enhanced and expanded with the opening of Henri-Bourassa Boulevard, the construction of the Papineau-Leblanc Bridge, and the opening of the Henri-Bourassa metro station. Only Gouin Boulevard and the north end of the district retained their holiday ambiance.

Image : HM_ARC_002374

Powerhouse, Rivière des Prairies
October 14 1933
© Archives d’Hydro-Québec, © Héritage Montréal


Image : HM_ARC_002406

Fort Lorette
Circa 1928
© Ville de Montréal. Gestion de documents et archives (163-01-01-1 Archives SHSAR), © Héritage Montréal


Image : HM_ARC_002407

Fort Lorette, around 1928
Circa 1928
© Ville de Montréal. Gestion de documents et archives (163-01-01-1, Archives SHSAR), © Héritage Montréal


Image : HM_ARC_002208

Sault-au-Récollet general store

© Ville de Montréal. Gestion de documents et archives (R3089.2), © Héritage Montréal


Image : HM_ARC_002224

Windmills at Sault-au-Récollet (around 1930)

© Ville de Montréal. Gestion de documents et archives (164-01-01-2), © Héritage Montréal


Image : HM_ARC_002087

Du Pressoir House
Circa 1930
23.4 cm
35 cm
© Fonds Cité Historia, Musée d'histoire de Sault-au-Récollet, © Héritage Montréal


Image : HM_ARC_002088

David Fleury Dumouchel House

9.9 cm
14.5 cm
© Fonds Cité Historia, Musée d'histoire de Sault-au-Récollet, © Héritage Montréal


Image : HM_ARC_002090

Laporte House, built around 1850 (2134 Gouin Boulevard)

8.9 cm
12.6 cm
© Fonds Cité Historia, Musée d'histoire de Sault-au-Récollet, © Héritage Montréal


Image : HM_ARC_002133

Du Pressoir House

10 cm
15.1 cm
© Ville de Montréal, SDCQMVDE, Direction des grands parcs et de la nature en ville, © Héritage Montréal


Image : HM_ARC_002519

Avenue of Île-de-la-Visitation

© Ville de Montréal, Gestion de documents et archives (Dossier 163-01-01-1, Archives SHSAR), © Héritage Montréal


Image : HM_ARC_002520

Golf course, Île-de-la-Visitation
1936
© Ville de Montréal, Gestion de documents et archives (Dossier 163-01-01-1, Archives SHSAR), © Héritage Montréal


1971 2008

1971-2008

Heritage recognition for a still vibrant neighbourhood

Starting in 1970, the sector's heritage and natural environment began to be enhanced by the municipal and provincial governments, which built bicycle paths and developed a program to depollute municipal water. The Société pour la conservation du Sault-au-Récollet was founded.

The city repurchased a section of the shoreline along with part of Île de la Visitation to develop and open the Île de la Visitation Park in 1983.

In 1992, the City of Montreal named the old village a heritage site, and the ruins of the old mill buildings were restored in 1998 with the inauguration of the Cité Historia museum. Some monuments were either classified or recognized.

Today, Sault-au-Récollet has the largest concentration of ancient houses and buildings on the north end of the Island of Montreal. Almost 300 buildings dating from the 18th century can still be seen: churches, convent ensembles, mill ruins, the nature park, cemetery, and archaeological sites. While still considered a transit zone because of its bridges and major roads, this neighbourhood has retained the rustic atmosphere that is so treasured by Montrealers.

Image : HM_ARC_002083

Église La Visitation, Sault-au-Récollet

10.1 cm
15.1 cm
© Fonds Cité Historia, Musée d'histoire de Sault-au-Récollet, © Héritage Montréal


1971-2008

Heritage recognition for a still vibrant neighbourhood

Starting in 1970, the sector's heritage and natural environment began to be enhanced by the municipal and provincial governments, which built bicycle paths and developed a program to depollute municipal water. The Société pour la conservation du Sault-au-Récollet was founded.

The city repurchased a section of the shoreline along with part of Île de la Visitation to develop and open the Île de la Visitation Park in 1983.

In 1992, the City of Montreal named the old village a heritage site, and the ruins of the old mill buildings were restored in 1998 with the inauguration of the Cité Historia museum. Some monuments were either classified or recognized.

Today, Sault-au-Récollet has the largest concentration of ancient houses and buildings on the north end of the Island of Montreal. Almost 300 buildings dating from the 18th century can still be seen: churches, convent ensembles, mill ruins, the nature park, cemetery, and archaeological sites. While still considered a transit zone because of its bridges and major roads, this neighbourhood has retained the rustic atmosphere that is so treasured by Montrealers.

Image : HM_ARC_002130

L'Île-de-la-Visitation Nature Park path, with view of dam

10.2 cm
15 cm
© Ville de Montréal, SDCQMVDE, Direction des grands parcs et de la nature en ville, © Héritage Montréal


Image : HM_ARC_002140

L'Île-de-la-Visitation Nature Park
July 30 1982
2.4 cm
3.5 cm
© Ville de Montréal, SDCQMVDE, Direction des grands parcs et de la nature en ville, © Héritage Montréal


Image : HM_ARC_002147

Aerial plan of Île-de-la-Visitation and Sault-au-Récollet
September 20 1982
69.5 cm
100 cm
© Ville de Montréal, SDCQMVDE, Direction des grands parcs et de la nature en ville, © Héritage Montréal


Image : HM_ARC_002685

Development of the ruins on the dike, L'Île-de-la-Visitation Nature Park

© Ville de Montréal, SDCQMVDE, Direction des grands parcs et de la nature en ville (DM5 9541-000 #122 980), © Héritage Montréal


Image : HM_ARC_002686

Old windmill, L'Île-de-la-Visitation Nature Park

© Ville de Montréal, SDCQMVDE, Direction des grands parcs et de la nature en ville (DM5 9541-000 #122 990), © Héritage Montréal


Image : HM_ARC_002687

Dike leading to Île-de-la-Visitation

© Ville de Montréal, SDCQMVDE, Direction des grands parcs et de la nature en ville(DM5 9541-000 #122 991), © Héritage Montréal


Image : HM_ARC_002086

Persillier Lachapelle House

10.1 cm
17.7 cm
© Fonds Cité Historia, Musée d'histoire de Sault-au-Récollet, © Héritage Montréal


Image : HM_ARC_002084

General store of 2012 Gouin Boulevard

10.1 cm
17.7 cm
© Fonds Cité Historia, Musée d'histoire de Sault-au-Récollet, © Héritage Montréal


Image : HM_ARC_002497

Plan of the Gouin Boulevard Parkway
1962
© Ville de Montréal, Gestion de documents et archives (Dossier rue 17-09-05-02 R3089), © Héritage Montréal