Neighbourhood Hochelaga-Maisonneuve

History

1664 1825

1664-1825

The Sulpicians owned the sector now known as Hochelaga-Maisonneuve from the time they became lords (seigneurs) of the island. They divided the land into strips perpendicular to the river, and farms were established in 1664.

In the early nineteenth century, the Sainte-Marie current made it difficult for ships to sail up the river between this sector and the present-day Jacques-Cartier Bridge. Merchandise was unloaded on a quay and transported by the Chemin du Roy (King's Road) - now Notre-Dame Street. It was surrounding this quay that the sector developed, including Côte-Saint-Martin and Côte-Sainte-Marie. In 1825, there were about twenty homes spread out along the riverfront.

1826 1870

1826-1870

A village is born

In the 19th century, Montreal manufacturing companies began to locate along the river and then along the Lachine Canal to the west. In the 1840's, improved rail transport, commercial shipping, and harbour facilities lead to the gradual urbanization of the sector. In 1861, the Montreal City Passenger Railway Company was established, along with repair shops and stables for the horses that pulled its trams. Notre-Dame Street was paved to limit the erosion caused by flooding. The village of Hochelaga was founded in 1870. It grew up around Dézery Street and was composed of houses, commercial establishments, the Nativité Catholic chapel, and St. Mary's Anglican church with its small school. Over time, farmers sold their land along the riverfront and upper middle-class families, including the Cuvilliers, Valois, and Morgans, built homes and villas there.

Image : HM_ARC_005798

Plan of the properties of the lands between Moreau, Valois, Notre-Dame, Rachel, Aylwin, Léveillé, Delisle and Darling streets
1949
© Ville de Montréal. Gestion de documents et archives (R3080.030), © Héritage Montréal


1826-1870

A village is born

In the 19th century, Montreal manufacturing companies began to locate along the river and then along the Lachine Canal to the west. In the 1840's, improved rail transport, commercial shipping, and harbour facilities lead to the gradual urbanization of the sector. In 1861, the Montreal City Passenger Railway Company was established, along with repair shops and stables for the horses that pulled its trams. Notre-Dame Street was paved to limit the erosion caused by flooding. The village of Hochelaga was founded in 1870. It grew up around Dézery Street and was composed of houses, commercial establishments, the Nativité Catholic chapel, and St. Mary's Anglican church with its small school. Over time, farmers sold their land along the riverfront and upper middle-class families, including the Cuvilliers, Valois, and Morgans, built homes and villas there.

Image : HM_ARC_005387

Nativité-de-la-Sainte-Vierge Church
1900
© Atelier d’histoire d’Hochelaga-Maisonneuve, © Héritage Montréal


Image : HM_ARC_005721

History of Mr Dézéry's land

© Ville de Montréal. Gestion des documents et archives (D.1901.194), © Héritage Montréal


1871 1883

1871-1883

From village to town

The first roads, including Pie-IX Boulevard and Jeanne-d'Arc Street were laid out across a vast stretch of land called the Domaine Mathieu. In 1876, the terminal and railway shops of the Quebec, Montreal, Ottawa, and Occidental Railway were built in the west end of Hochelaga. Workers found employment at the Hudon and Sainte-Anne cotton mills, the MacDonald tobacco factory, a slaughterhouse, a gas company, tanneries, and tram workshops. The village expanded quickly and, in 1883, the town of Hochelaga was founded south of the present-day Rosemont Boulevard between Iberville and Vimont streets. Municipal finances were drained by the construction of infrastructures such as streets, sewers, and an aqueduct, and the idea of facilitating urbanization by annexing Hochelaga to Montreal was quickly adopted.

Image : HM_ARC_005220

Atlas of the City and Island of Montreal Canada, Ville de Hochelaga
1879
45 cm
72 cm
© Dinu Bumbaru / © Héritage Montréal


1871-1883

From village to town

The first roads, including Pie-IX Boulevard and Jeanne-d'Arc Street were laid out across a vast stretch of land called the Domaine Mathieu. In 1876, the terminal and railway shops of the Quebec, Montreal, Ottawa, and Occidental Railway were built in the west end of Hochelaga. Workers found employment at the Hudon and Sainte-Anne cotton mills, the MacDonald tobacco factory, a slaughterhouse, a gas company, tanneries, and tram workshops. The village expanded quickly and, in 1883, the town of Hochelaga was founded south of the present-day Rosemont Boulevard between Iberville and Vimont streets. Municipal finances were drained by the construction of infrastructures such as streets, sewers, and an aqueduct, and the idea of facilitating urbanization by annexing Hochelaga to Montreal was quickly adopted.

Image : HM_ARC_001885

Pie IX Boulevard, Maisonneuve

8.8 cm
14 cm
© Dinu Bumbaru, © Héritage Montréal


Image : HM_ARC_005585

American Can Co.

© Ville de Montréal. Gestion de documents et archives (VM94-Z-64), © Héritage Montréal


Image : HM_ARC_005809

Victor Hudon cotton mill

© Ville de Montréal. Gestion de documents et archives (R3067-2_3336E-002), © Héritage Montréal


Image : HM_ARC_005811

Victor Hudon cotton mill

© Ville de Montréal. Gestion de documents et archives (R3067-2_3336E-005), © Héritage Montréal


Image : HM_ARC_005796

City plan - Maisonneuve

© Ville de Montréal. Gestion des documents et archives (D-98), © Héritage Montréal


Image : HM_ARC_005804

Coat of arms - Maisonneuve

© Ville de Montréal. Gestion des documents et archives (UC-2443), © Héritage Montréal


1884 1920

1884-1920

Founding and annexation of Maisonneuve

When Hochelaga was annexed to Montreal in 1883, the east end, known as Côte Saint-Martin, decided to go its own way. A group of French-Canadian landowners, including Joseph Barsalou, Alphonse Desjardins, and Oscar and Marius Dufresne, wished to found a model industrial city inspired by the City Beautiful movement, and the town of Maisonneuve was founded. It was divided into rectangular districts and plots of land, where its developers planned to build factories and grandiose institutional buildings.

Between 1896 and 1915, Maisonneuve experienced unparalleled growth and became known as the “Pittsburgh of Canada.” Attracted by tax exemptions and other advantageous policies, companies located along Notre-Dame Street, near the port, or near the Canadian Northern Railway, opened in 1903, to the north and then the south of Ontario Street, ending at the new Moreau station. These factories hired many workers, including immigrants and people from the surrounding countryside. They worked in the shoe, textile, tanning, slaughterhouse, tobacco, food, and shipbuilding industries. Their poor working conditions lead to the creation of the Parti ouvrier (Workers' party) and the first unions. The first streetcars began to roll along Sainte Catherine and Ontario Streets, which became urban growth axes in both Hochelaga and Maisonneuve. While the worthies settled along Adam, Lafontaine, and Pie IX streets, many small rental buildings were built for the factory workers, along with churches, schools, banks, and convents. Entrepreneur and gentleman farmer Charles-Théodore Viau dreamed of creating a model town on his land (Viauville) and required purchasers of all lots to build stone-façaded houses.

The enormous Canadian Vickers Ltd. shipyard was founded at the end of Viau Boulevard just before the outbreak of WWI. In 1918, $18 million in debt, Maisonneuve was forced to annex to Montreal.

Image : HM_ARC_003430

Aerial view of Canadian Vickers plant and Montreal

18.3 cm
23.5 cm
© HEC Montréal, © Héritage Montréal


1884-1920

Founding and annexation of Maisonneuve

When Hochelaga was annexed to Montreal in 1883, the east end, known as Côte Saint-Martin, decided to go its own way. A group of French-Canadian landowners, including Joseph Barsalou, Alphonse Desjardins, and Oscar and Marius Dufresne, wished to found a model industrial city inspired by the City Beautiful movement, and the town of Maisonneuve was founded. It was divided into rectangular districts and plots of land, where its developers planned to build factories and grandiose institutional buildings.

Between 1896 and 1915, Maisonneuve experienced unparalleled growth and became known as the “Pittsburgh of Canada.” Attracted by tax exemptions and other advantageous policies, companies located along Notre-Dame Street, near the port, or near the Canadian Northern Railway, opened in 1903, to the north and then the south of Ontario Street, ending at the new Moreau station. These factories hired many workers, including immigrants and people from the surrounding countryside. They worked in the shoe, textile, tanning, slaughterhouse, tobacco, food, and shipbuilding industries. Their poor working conditions lead to the creation of the Parti ouvrier (Workers' party) and the first unions. The first streetcars began to roll along Sainte Catherine and Ontario Streets, which became urban growth axes in both Hochelaga and Maisonneuve. While the worthies settled along Adam, Lafontaine, and Pie IX streets, many small rental buildings were built for the factory workers, along with churches, schools, banks, and convents. Entrepreneur and gentleman farmer Charles-Théodore Viau dreamed of creating a model town on his land (Viauville) and required purchasers of all lots to build stone-façaded houses.

The enormous Canadian Vickers Ltd. shipyard was founded at the end of Viau Boulevard just before the outbreak of WWI. In 1918, $18 million in debt, Maisonneuve was forced to annex to Montreal.

Image : HM_ARC_004278

Saint-Clement Church, Viauville, near Montreal
Circa 1910
13 cm
7.8 cm
© McCord Museum, © Héritage Montréal


Image : HM_ARC_005589

Maisonneuve city hall

© Ville de Montréal. Gestion de documents et archives (VM94Z-49), © Héritage Montréal


Image : HM_ARC_005833

La Fermière monument in front of the Maisonneuve Market

© Ville de Montréal. Gestion des documents et archives (R-3062.2), © Héritage Montréal


Image : HM_ARC_003502

MSR #890 tram, Ontario and Viauville route (first tram to use the P.A.Y.E "Pay as you enter" system)
1905
25 cm
20 cm
© Exporail (# P74), © Héritage Montréal


Image : HM_ARC_005658

Viau Cookie Factory, facade
Circa 1967
© Atelier d’histoire d’Hochelaga-Maisonneuve, © Héritage Montréal


Image : HM_ARC_003660

A Viauville street (Maisonneuve)

© Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec, © Héritage Montréal


Image : HM_ARC_003503

View of the Hochelage tram station (Notre-Dame street), with the gas reservoir in background
1912
25 cm
20 cm
© Exporail (# P72), © Héritage Montréal


1921 1960

1921-1960

The Great Depression (1929 - 1939) weighed heavily on the district's factories and workers, forcing many families to apply for Secours direct (social assistance). Public works projects, including the development of Morgan Park, aimed to create jobs for the unemployed. Suspended during World War II, these projects were replaced by the defence industry, which sparked an economic recovery into the 1960s.

Prefabricated wooden houses were quickly constructed to house workers and veterans, injecting new life into this largely francophone (90 percent) working-class neighbourhood. Church bells and factory sirens provided the background music for this close-knit community, characterized by a sense of solidarity that was strengthened by the workers' struggles. In the 1950s, a veterans' sector was created as well as Champêtre Park. At that time, the Olympic park area was used for sporting activities such as tennis and cross-country skiing.

Image : HM_ARC_002737

Granada Theater, loge

24.8 cm
19.4 cm
© Théâtre Denise-Pelletier, © Héritage Montréal


1921-1960

The Great Depression (1929 - 1939) weighed heavily on the district's factories and workers, forcing many families to apply for Secours direct (social assistance). Public works projects, including the development of Morgan Park, aimed to create jobs for the unemployed. Suspended during World War II, these projects were replaced by the defence industry, which sparked an economic recovery into the 1960s.

Prefabricated wooden houses were quickly constructed to house workers and veterans, injecting new life into this largely francophone (90 percent) working-class neighbourhood. Church bells and factory sirens provided the background music for this close-knit community, characterized by a sense of solidarity that was strengthened by the workers' struggles. In the 1950s, a veterans' sector was created as well as Champêtre Park. At that time, the Olympic park area was used for sporting activities such as tennis and cross-country skiing.

Image : HM_ARC_005655

Marshalling yard (Hochelaga)
1937
© Atelier d’histoire d’Hochelaga-Maisonneuve, © Héritage Montréal


Image : HM_ARC_005814

Streetscape: roadworks corner of Hochelaga and Desjardins streets
1956
© Ville de Montréal. Gestion de documents et archives (R3510-1-2-006), © Héritage Montréal


Image : HM_ARC_003523

Maisonneuve Church (Adam street)
1909
© Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec, Albums de rues E.-Z. Massicotte – MAS 1-28-b, © Héritage Montréal


Image : HM_ARC_005592

Maisonneuve market front with cars
Circa 1930
© Ville de Montréal. Gestion de documents et archives (VM94Z-509- 23), © Héritage Montréal


Image : HM_ARC_004272

St. Lawrence Sugar Refinery, Montreal
Circa 1912
10 cm
14 cm
© McCord Museum, © Héritage Montréal


1961 1976

1961-1976

The construction of major transportation infrastructures such as Highway 25 in 1967 and the east-west highway required the demolition of some 2,000 homes and institutional buildings, including the impressive Hochelaga Convent. These changes, combined with the movement of capital and production to Toronto, hurt the neighbourhood's economy and vitality. Many factories left the area, along with numerous residents. New grassroots organizations sprang up, such as Quebec's first CLSCs.

The first athletic facilities were inaugurated in the Olympic Park sector. The Centre Pierre-Charbonneau and the Maurice-Richard Arena, opened in 1961, added a resolutely modern touch to the architecture of the sector, which was preparing to host the Olympic Games.

Image : HM_ARC_003192

Port, Longue-Pointe

© Administration portuaire de Montréal, © Héritage Montréal


1961-1976

The construction of major transportation infrastructures such as Highway 25 in 1967 and the east-west highway required the demolition of some 2,000 homes and institutional buildings, including the impressive Hochelaga Convent. These changes, combined with the movement of capital and production to Toronto, hurt the neighbourhood's economy and vitality. Many factories left the area, along with numerous residents. New grassroots organizations sprang up, such as Quebec's first CLSCs.

The first athletic facilities were inaugurated in the Olympic Park sector. The Centre Pierre-Charbonneau and the Maurice-Richard Arena, opened in 1961, added a resolutely modern touch to the architecture of the sector, which was preparing to host the Olympic Games.

Image : HM_ARC_003191

Longue-Pointe village, Saint-Malo Street

© Collection Famille Saint-Jean, Atelier d’histoire de la Longue-Pointe © Héritage Montréal


Image : HM_ARC_003188

Demolition of houses, Longue-Pointe village

© Collection Denis Lachapelle, Atelier d’histoire de la Longue-Pointe © Héritage Montréal


Image : HM_ARC_003186

Demolition of the Église Saint-François-d'Assise-de-la-Longue-Pointe
1963
© Collection Jeanne Gravel, Atelier d’histoire de la Longue-Pointe © Héritage Montréal


Image : HM_ARC_005709

Recreational Centre and indoor pool, Maisonneuve Park

© Ville de Montréal. Gestion des documents et archives (R3092.2), © Héritage Montréal


Image : HM_ARC_005702

Sketch of the Maurice Richard Arena
1958
20.3 cm
25.4 cm
© Ville de Montréal. Gestion des documents et archives (R-3092.2), © Héritage Montréal


Image : HM_ARC_005748

Land used for the construction of the Olympic Park, and view of the Maurice Richard Arena

© Ville de Montréal. Gestion des documents et archives (UC-1346), © Héritage Montréal


Image : HM_ARC_005704

Maurice Richard Arena

© Ville de Montréal. Gestion des documents et archives (R-3092.2), © Héritage Montréal


1976 2008

1976-2008

The coming of the Olympic Games transformed the neighbourhood's architectural landscape through the construction of some impressive buildings. During the 1980s and 1990s, the Maisonneuve Market, which had been closed since 1962, was re-opened, and Montreal's first Maison de la Culture (cultural centre) was opened in Maisonneuve's former city hall. New residential sectors appeared in the neighbourhood's north end.

Today, the manufacturing industry is making room for a service industry composed of small and medium-sized businesses. Hochelaga-Maisonneuve still has an active community life with community and social economy cafés and bistros and community and heritage organizations. The rehabilitation of the old American Can factory, various developments, and the gradual revitalization of business streets, including the Promenades Sainte-Catherine and Ontario, are further signs of this step-by-step renewal. Still, the population is aging and includes fewer children than other Montreal neighbourhoods.

Bordered to the east and west by the railroad tracks parallel to Moreau and Vimont Streets, Hochelaga-Maisonneuve stretches from Sherbrooke Street to the north to Notre-Dame Street to the south.

Image : HM_ARC_005800

Olympic stadium without the mast

© Ville de Montréal. Gestion des documents et archives (DC-271-1), © Héritage Montréal


1976-2008

The coming of the Olympic Games transformed the neighbourhood's architectural landscape through the construction of some impressive buildings. During the 1980s and 1990s, the Maisonneuve Market, which had been closed since 1962, was re-opened, and Montreal's first Maison de la Culture (cultural centre) was opened in Maisonneuve's former city hall. New residential sectors appeared in the neighbourhood's north end.

Today, the manufacturing industry is making room for a service industry composed of small and medium-sized businesses. Hochelaga-Maisonneuve still has an active community life with community and social economy cafés and bistros and community and heritage organizations. The rehabilitation of the old American Can factory, various developments, and the gradual revitalization of business streets, including the Promenades Sainte-Catherine and Ontario, are further signs of this step-by-step renewal. Still, the population is aging and includes fewer children than other Montreal neighbourhoods.

Bordered to the east and west by the railroad tracks parallel to Moreau and Vimont Streets, Hochelaga-Maisonneuve stretches from Sherbrooke Street to the north to Notre-Dame Street to the south.

Image : HM_ARC_003251

View of the Olympic Park with the Maurice Richard Arena
May 17 1982
2.3 cm
3.4 cm
© Fonds de Commission de transport de Montréal, Archives de la STM(S10/10.1.22), © Héritage Montréal


Image : HM_ARC_005760

Town hall, Maisonneuve

© Ville de Montréal. Gestion des documents et archives (UC-1346), © Héritage Montréal


Image : HM_ARC_004951

American Can Co
1989-1990
6 cm
6 cm
© Brian Merrett, www.archiguides.com, réf.155X, © Héritage Montréal